Van Fraasen sobre la subdeterminación de la teoría cuántica:
Under-determination occurs when the data serving an empirically adequate model can fit different pictures of what is happening in the unobservable realm. That means that the same dataset can be explained by more than one kind of “real” world, which confuses the realists who want a single picture.
In quantum mechanics, the Copenhagen Interpretation espoused by Niels Bohr, David Bohm’s pilot wave interpretation, and the “relative state” interpretation of Hugh Everett III, all yield empirically adequate models that fit, and will fit, the same experimental data. They each make the same quantum mechanical predictions. But each of these interpretations posits a vastly different conception of the unobservable universe—and it is not possible to say which is “right.”
Niels Bohr’s version of the Copenhagen Interpretation forbids mixing the classical (macroscopic) and quantum (microscopic) worlds. Bohm envisages a fundamentally classical universe that subsumes quantum mechanics. Everett’s “many worlds” are totally quantum mechanical and perspectival upon the location of an observer, herself describable as a probability distribution.