//Estudio de transnacionales. Es posible entender este dominio mediante la teoría del actor-red?//
Why the study of transnational companies should be part of the economics curriculum, by Grazia Ietto-Gillies:
The business media is awash with news about transnational companies (TNCs) be they in the services or manufacturing or agriculture sector. The news may refer to performance or strategies or plans for real investment (or the lack of them) or takeovers. There is currently also considerable interest in their tax minimization strategies.
It could be argued that the nationality of the investor, employer, or producer does not matter: a firm is a firm and the task of economics is to study it independently of where it invests or its nationality. I have argued (Ietto-Gillies, 2004 and 2012: introduction and Ch. 14) that the existence of nation-states with their different regulatory regimes makes a specific study of the TNC necessary. The regulatory regimes refer to taxation or labour and social security or currencies or environmental laws. The differences in regulatory regimes across different countries generate opportunities for alternative, profitable strategies for firms able to operate across national frontiers. Such operations allow the TNC to take advantage of different fiscal, currency or labour and social security or environmental regulations. (…)
Additional advantages of transnationality for companies may also derive from: (a) the spreading of risk across different locations; and (b) the acquisition of knowledge from a variety of cultural and business contexts that the location of production in different countries allows. There are, of course, also costs and risks associated with operating in different locations.
//En este punto, el punto de vista actor-red entra en contacto con la problemática molecular-molar y micro-macro, como aparece por ejemplo en Deleuze (en Simondon, se resuelve mediante los Ordenes De Magnitud u OdM). Esta teoría económica comprende esta distinción como interés-regulación: todo emprendimiento es micro, pero sus fronteras seran las regulaciones que cada aparato estatal imponga sobre ciertos territorios para defender intereses locales, que no son parte del flujo pero que son atravesados por estos.//
Most of us who have embraced alternative and realist approaches to the study and teaching of economics are still, on the whole, stuck with the distinction between micro and macro economics largely taken by us from the orthodox literature. How appropriate is this distinction in a world in which a few firms dominate markets and industries even at the global level? The domination is not just in terms of market shares. On the production side we must take account of the domination that principal firms exercise over smaller contractors many of which operate in other countries. The domination by a few large firms in a particular industry affect labour, consumers and smaller firms linked to the large ones by contractual arrangements. It also affects governments and their policies. Celi et at. (2017: Ch 2) show how the offshoring and outsourcing investment strategies of French, German and Italian automobile manufacturers can largely explain changes in the country’s trade balance. The micro is almost the meso and greatly affects the macro. Governments and labour force as well as economics teachers take note.
If we WEA economists want to disseminate among our students an alternative and realist approach to the study of economics, then we need to include the study of TNCs in our courses. The task is feasible because there is, indeed, a large literature on theories and effects of TNCs and their activities. The topic is widely researched mostly in Business Schools. Here are some sources of literature.
//Continúa haciendo referencias a publicaciones varias.
Most of the journals tend to be multi- and inter-disciplinary dealing with economics, management, accounting and organizational issues.
//¿qué significa el estudio del dominio economico y de flujos de las transnacionales en la filosofía? ¿Cuál es su potencia epistemológica, científica, filosófica?